Advanced ImmunoChemical, Inc. offers 5 different high quality monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the detection of caliciviruses. The antibodies were developed using feline calicivirus (FCV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as immunogens in order to obtain antibodies that would detect the most common epitopes of different caliciviruses. All MAbs detect human norovirus, feline calicivirus and the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.
Click: AssayNotes – Caliciviridae (norovirus) for product details, immunological activity, and MAb pair (capture-detection) recommendations.
Noroviruses are highly contagious viruses that cause vomiting and diarrhea. In fact, most nonbacterial gastroenteritis infections are caused by noroviruses. These viruses are transmitted by the fecal-oral route and the source of infection is often contaminated food or water; for example, eating fresh or frozen berries without heating them first has been identified as a typical way of catching the disease. The virus also spreads easily when one comes into contact with infected individuals and from surfaces that they have touched. This means that the virus easily spreads among groups of people, for example in schools, in hospitals or even at home. The Norovirus genus belongs to the Caliciviridae family of positive-sense single stranded RNA viruses. Other genera in this family are Vesivirus, Lagovirus, Sapovirus and Nebovirus. In addition to humans, different caliciviruses infect vertebrates such as cats, pigs, rabbits and cattle.
Foodborne diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality both in developing and developed countries. A vast number of different pathogens and their toxins can contaminate food and water and cause illness when ingested. In most cases the illnesses are mild and last only a few days. However, infants, young children, elderly and people with compromised immune system have often a higher risk for developing severe illnesses.
Detecting other pathogens and toxins caused by foodborne diseases:
Rotavirus is the number one cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. Our anti-rotavirus MAbs ( Catalog #5-RVp42) have been shown to detect numerous human rotavirus field strains. In addition, they cross-react well with rotaviruses that are infecting animals.
Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne gastroenteritis and it affects tens of millions of human beings every year. We provide monoclonal antibodies specific to Salmonella O-antigens ( Catalog #5-SO). Some of these MAbs are specific to a single serogroup while others have broader specificity (see Table). In addition, we have developed MAbs suitable for detecting S. typhimurium ( Catalog #5-StLPS) and S. virchow ( Catalog #5-Sv). The former has a broad reactivity range recognizing E. coli 1234 and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 7644) species as well.
Calibration curves for the detection of the OM fraction of L. monocytogenes (A) or whole cells (B).
Listeriosis is among the leading causes of death from foodborne illness. Our anti-L. monocytogenes MAbs ( Catalog #5-LM) show high immunoreactivity against the outer membrane (OM) fraction of L. monocytogenes as well as against the whole cells (see Figure).
O-antigen specificity of the anti-Salmonella mAbs. Salmonella serogroups are given in parenthesis.
Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, sporeforming bacterium that produces a very potent neurotoxin and causes a life-threatening disease called botulism. We have used formaldehyde inactivated C. botulinum toxins (toxoids) A, B, D and E to generate monoclonal antibodies that are specific to these toxins. In addition, we provide monoclonal antibodies ( Catalog #5-CbA2) that recognize the natural and non-inactivated toxin A.
Human astroviruses are a common reason for a gastroenteritis infection in young children. We provide a monoclonal antibody detecting astrovirus serotype 1, which appears to be the one most often associated with gastroenteritis ( Catalog #5-AV1).
According to WHO, there are approximately 3-5 million cholera cases and 100,000 deaths as a result of cholera each year. We offer monoclonal antibodies that are specific to whole cells (serogroups O1 and/or O139) or the B-subunit of cholera toxin ( Catalog #5-VC).
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of diarrhea. Our anti-Campylobacter jejuni MAbs ( Catalog #5-Cj) show no cross-reaction with Salmonella or Escherichia coli.
Additional Foodborne Pathogen products: