Fibrinogen is a main protein of the blood coagulation system. It consists of two identical subunits, each of which contains three polypeptide chains: a, b and g. The process of blood coagulation results in the conversion of ﬁ brinogen into ﬁbrin by thrombin and subsequent ﬁbrin polymerization. The fibrin clot is then digested by plasmin and ﬁbrin degradation products with different molecular weights are released into the bloodstream. D-dimer is a final product of ﬁ brin degradation (MW 180 kDa, Fig. 1). It consists of the remnants of all three chains that are cross linked by disulﬁde bonds. The dimeric structure is held by two isopeptide bonds between the C-terminal parts of g-chains forming a cross-linked region. The D-dimer level in healthy individuals is less than 0.5 mg/ml. Elevated levels of D-dimer were found in the blood of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism, deep vein thromboses, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The elevated level of D-dimer in blood indicates a risk of myocardial infarction and is believed to be a reliable marker of pathological coagulation that underlies pathogenesis of most cardiovascular diseases (1, 2). It is widely used to exclude deep vein thrombosis (3). Furthermore, elevated levels of D-dimer without thrombotic symptoms makes it possible to suspect malignancy. For the accurate determination of D-dimer, the assays must not detect fibrinogen and its degration products (D-monomer). Advanced ImmunoChemical offers D-dimer produced from clotted fibrinogen by means of plasmin digestion and anti-D-dimer MAbs.
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